Greetings Readers. Next up is an article on Computer Networks explaining the various Network layouts or commonly called as Network Topologies.
The term topology means “layout,” so a network topology defines the network layout, meaning how the network devices are positioned on the network. There are three major network topologies: the bus, ring, and star topologies.
Also a Combination of these topologies known as a hybrid topology.
When Networking began the bus topology was very popular. It has a main cable through which all the systems would connect to.
There are connectors at either end of the bus.They are designed to absorb the electrical signal off the network.If there were no terminators to absorb the signal , then the signal would bounce back and collide with other data on the cable.
When Node A wants to send data to Node B,the data leaves the node A and reaches the common bus.The electric signal then travels the length of the bus in both direction before it reaches the terminator and is absorbed off the main cable. The data is seen by all the systems on the network, but only node b process the information, as it is the only intended recepeint of the information.
Drawback: One of the major drawback of the layout is that when the common trunk fails, the entire network fails. This is because the break in the main cable creates a non-terminated end that causes the signal to bounce back and eventually collide with other data.
The ring topology has all the systems connected in a circle or a ring. The data travels around the ring with each systems regenerating the signal so that it can move to the next node or a networking device that exist in the network. Like a bus Topology if there is a break in the ring the entire network will go down.
Note :Most Ring Topologies implement fault tolerance by providing two rings. When the primary ring fails the secondary ring is used to carry the data.
The star topology is a network layout using a central device such as a switch as the connection point for all the systems on the network. When node A wants to send data to Node D , the data travels from node A to switch then to node D.
Star topologies are popular today and one of the reason for that is a break in the cable affects only the system connected to that cable , the rest of the network still functions.
As the name implies the combination of one or more network topologies is termed as Hybrid network topology. Although star topology is very popular today , many companies use a hybrid topology. Consider for eg: Many companies use a to cover the distance (bus topology) , between two switches, which create their own star topologies. Some call this as a star-bus topology.
The network topologies remain an important part in the network design theory. We can build, say a small home network without knowing these topologies but becoming familiar with these will help us in the long term design of computer Networks.
Also dont forget to check out my article on various OSI layers ,standards used in Computer Networks.
Thank u for reading this Article hope it was useful !